By David E. Stannard
For 400 years-from the 1st Spanish attacks opposed to the Arawak humans of Hispaniola within the 1490s to the U.S. Army's bloodbath of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee within the 1890s—the indigenous population of North and South the USA persevered an never-ending firestorm of violence. in the course of that point the local inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere declined by way of as many as a hundred million humans. certainly, as historian David E. Stannard argues during this gorgeous new ebook, the ecu and white American destruction of the local peoples of the Americas used to be the main mammoth act of genocide within the historical past of the world.
Stannard starts with a portrait of the large richness and variety of lifestyles within the Americas sooner than Columbus's fateful voyage in 1492. He then follows the trail of genocide from the Indies to Mexico and relevant and South the United States, then north to Florida, Virginia, and New England, and at last out around the nice Plains and Southwest to California and the North Pacific Coast. Stannard unearths that at any place Europeans or white american citizens went, the local humans have been stuck among imported plagues and barbarous atrocities, generally leading to the annihilation of ninety five percentage in their populations. what sort of humans, he asks, do such horrendous issues to others? His hugely provocative solution: Christians. Digging deeply into historical ecu and Christian attitudes towards intercourse, race, and conflict, he reveals the cultural floor ready by way of the top of the center a while for the centuries-long genocide crusade that Europeans and their descendants launched-and in locations proceed to wage-against the hot World's unique population. Advancing a thesis that's guaranteed to create a lot controversy, Stannard contends that the perpetrators of the yankee Holocaust drew at the similar ideological wellspring as did the later architects of the Nazi Holocaust.
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Additional info for American Holocaust: Colombus and the Conquest of the New World
Untold hundreds of other culturally and politically independent Indian nations and tribes that we have not even tried to survey filled the valleys and plains and woodlands and deserts and coastlines of what are now Canada and the United States. So many more, in fact, that to name the relative few that we have, this tiny percentage of the whole, risks minimizing rather than illustrating their numbers. Perhaps the best way to convey some sense of these multitudes and varieties of culture is simply to note that a recent listing of the extant Indian peoples of North America produced a compi lation of nearly 800 separate nations-about half of which are formally recognized by the United States as semi-sovereign political entities-but then cautioned that the list "is not exhaustive with regard to their subdi visions or alternate names.
No single structure in what later became the United States housed this many people until the largest apartment buildings of New York City were constructed in the nineteenth century. But in its time Pueblo Bonito was far from unique. 21 So successful were these water management systems that, as Peter Nabokov and Robert Easton have observed, "vir tually all of the water that fell in the immediate vicinity was channeled down spillways and troughs to feed their gardens and replenish their res ervoirs.
Not all the cultures surveyed in the preceding pages were contemporaneous with one another; certain of them ascended or declined centuries apart. Some of the societies that we have mentioned here, and some that went unmentioned, have long since disappeared almost without a trace. Others continue on. Some have had their remains so badly plundered that virtually nothing of them any longer exists-such as the once-massive Spiro Mound, a monument of an eastern Oklahoma people, that was looted of its treasures in the 1 930s by the farmer who owned the land on which it stood.
American Holocaust: Colombus and the Conquest of the New World by David E. Stannard