By Richard J. A. Talbert
Ancient views encompasses an unlimited arc of area and time—Western Asia to North Africa and Europe from the 3rd millennium BCE to the 5th century CE—to discover mapmaking and worldviews within the historical civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. In every one society, maps served as serious fiscal, political, and private instruments, yet there has been little consistency in how and why they have been made. very like this day, maps in antiquity intended very various things to diversified people.
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Extra resources for Ancient Perspectives: Maps and Their Place in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome
D59W) there. 16 Similar vessels with triangular lugs have been found at Jawa in northern Lebanon, which appears to have been the southern extent of this type of pottery in the region (fig. 17 Triangular-lugged pottery also appears at Tell Judeidah (fig. 18 In light of the proximity of Habuba Kabira and Tell Judeidah to the sea, the existence of a sea route linking northern Syria to northern Egypt is plausible. 19 Multiple-brush painting spread from Iran through northern Mesopotamia to places such as Tell Judeidah and Hama in the west,20 and, like the triangular-lugged pottery, it is absent from Palestine, which further supports the possibility of a sea route that bypassed Palestine.
We would therefore expect to find lead artifacts long before the appearance of silver,25 and this is in fact the case. The earliest lead object comes from Çatal Hüyük (seventh millennium) and is followed by one from Yarim Tepe and one from Tell Sotto (sixth millennium), one from Arpachiyeh (fifth millennium), what may be a lead strip from an énéolithique grave at Byblos,26 and lead seems to have appeared in Palestine at about the same time it did in Byblos. As mentioned in chapter 3, it has been proposed that arsenical copper was imported from Anatolia, Iran, or the Caucasus Mountains by the Ghassulian peoples of Palestine.
It is clear that Egypt was procuring lapis lazuli, a rare and expensive commodity, but no one seems to know what the Egyptians were trading in return. We might begin by noting that the continued growth of Mesopotamian influence during the Naqada II period is matched by an increase in Upper Egyptian influence in Nubia. 50 In turn, records from the Sixth Dynasty (ca. 52 If Egypt was acquiring such items for trade with Mesopotamia, they would leave little if any trace today. 54 Further, as previously mentioned in chapter 4, what is believed to be a piece of Nubian ware was uncovered at the Mesopotamian colony at Habuba Kabira in northern Syria.
Ancient Perspectives: Maps and Their Place in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome by Richard J. A. Talbert